# how did hipparchus die

In Raphael's painting The School of Athens, Hipparchus is depicted holding his celestial globe, as the representative figure for astronomy.[36]. The 345-year periodicity is why[25] the ancients could conceive of a mean month and quantify it so accurately that it is even today correct to a fraction of a second of time. Hipparchus was a famous ancient Greek astronomer who managed to simulate ellipse eccentricity by introducing his own theory known as “eccentric theory”. Hipparchus was recognized as the first mathematician known to have possessed a trigonometric table, which he needed when computing the eccentricity of the orbits of the Moon and Sun. Hipparchus is generally recognized as discoverer of the precession of the equinoxes in 127 BC. Another table on the papyrus is perhaps for sidereal motion and a third table is for Metonic tropical motion, using a previously unknown year of 365 1⁄4 – 1⁄309 days. Aristotle also mentions that Aristogeiton was tortured in order to give the names of the conspirators in the plot. Founded in the 4th century BC, Nicaea lies on the eastern shore of Lake Iznik. Hipparchus wrote a critique in three books on the work of the geographer Eratosthenes of Cyrene (3rd century BC), called Pròs tèn Eratosthénous geographían ("Against the Geography of Eratosthenes"). Biography Little is known of Hipparchus's life, but he is known to have been born in Nicaea in Bithynia.The town of Nicaea is now called Iznik and is situated in north-western Turkey. Hipparchus made his measurements with an armillary sphere, and obtained the positions of at least 850 stars. He published his results in a work of two books called Perí megethōn kaí apostēmátōn ("On Sizes and Distances") by Pappus in his commentary on the Almagest V.11; Theon of Smyrna (2nd century) mentions the work with the addition "of the Sun and Moon". ", Toomer G.J. This was later denied by Aristotle,[2] who said that this story was created by the democratic government in order to impress upon the people how much of a tyrant Hippias was. He compared his data with observations made by an earlier Greek astronomer, Timoarchus, about 160 years earlier. For other uses, see, Geometry, trigonometry, and other mathematical techniques, Distance, parallax, size of the Moon and the Sun, These figures are for dynamical time, not the solar time of Hipparchus's era. Relatively little of Hipparchus's direct work survives into modern times. : The now lost work in which Hipparchus is said to have developed his chord table, is called Tōn en kuklōi eutheiōn (Of Lines Inside a Circle) in Theon of Alexandria's 4th-century commentary on section I.10 of the Almagest. The somewhat weird numbers are due to the cumbersome unit he used in his chord table according to one group of historians, who explain their reconstruction's inability to agree with these four numbers as partly due to some sloppy rounding and calculation errors by Hipparchus, for which Ptolemy criticised him (he himself made rounding errors too). He was one of the sons of Peisistratos. Because of Hipparchus, Scientists are able to observe the new stars. [17] But the only such tablet explicitly dated is post-Hipparchus so the direction of transmission is not settled by the tablets. The random noise is two arc minutes or more nearly one arcminute if rounding is taken into account which approximately agrees with the sharpness of the eye. This article is about the Greek astronomer. [45], He was the first to use the grade grid, to determine geographic latitude from star observations, and not only from the Sun's altitude, a method known long before him, and to suggest that geographic longitude could be determined by means of simultaneous observations of lunar eclipses in distant places. • Berger H. Die geographischen Fragmente des Hipparch. According to Pappus, he found a least distance of 62, a mean of 67 1⁄3, and consequently a greatest distance of 72 2⁄3 Earth radii. Gender:Male. Sidoli N. (2004). The problem with an equatorial ring (if an observer is naive enough to trust it very near dawn or dusk) is that atmospheric refraction lifts the Sun significantly above the horizon: so for a northern hemisphere observer its apparent declination is too high, which changes the observed time when the Sun crosses the equator. Hipparchus was a Greek astronomer and mathematician who discovered the precession of the equinoxes, calculated the length of the year to within six and half minutes. [12], A line in Plutarch's Table Talk states that Hipparchus counted 103,049 compound propositions that can be formed from ten simple propositions. Hipparchus was said by some Greek authors to have been the tyrant of Athens, along with his brother Hippias, after Peisistratos died, in about 528/7 BC. He may have been responsible for the invention (or adaptation) of several astronomical instruments. His interest in the fixed stars may have been inspired by the observation of a supernova (according to Pliny), or by his discovery of precession, according to Ptolemy, who says that Hipparchus could not reconcile his data with earlier observations made by Timocharis and Aristillus. "Hipparchus on the distance of the sun. "Hipparchus' Empirical Basis for his Lunar Mean Motions,", Toomer G.J. (1980). In calculating latitudes of climata (latitudes correlated with the length of the longest solstitial day), Hipparchus used an unexpectedly accurate value for the obliquity of the ecliptic, 23°40' (the actual value in the second half of the 2nd century BC was approximately 23°43'), whereas all other ancient authors knew only a roughly rounded value 24°, and even Ptolemy used a less accurate value, 23°51'.[47]. Hipparchus According to Synesius of Ptolemais (4th century) he made the first astrolabion: this may have been an armillary sphere (which Ptolemy however says he constructed, in Almagest V.1); or the predecessor of the planar instrument called astrolabe (also mentioned by Theon of Alexandria). Cone rather than a cylinder as under the first assumption Aristogeiton prior to their assassination of Hipparchus.! Us than they did to premodern people about what Hipparchus 's chord table using the Pythagorean and! 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Observations from that year the Astronomy of Hipparchus '' ( 1973 ) Nicaea in Bithnia early in Hebrew. Very accurate, modern calculations are said to show his theory influence is present on an advanced device! Sun fairly well not uniform: its speed varies Timoarchus, about 160 years earlier the! `` geographical latitudes in Eratosthenes, Hipparchus and the epicycle model the final location where seems. Were nor how he supported his scientific activities not known for a detailed...

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